1. NAME

1.1 The name of the Association is Anthropology Southern Africa (ASnA).



The objectives of the Association are to:

2.1 Promote study, teaching, discussion, and research in Anthropology,

2.2 Promote co-operation among, and the common interest of, persons engaged in anthropological study,

2.3 Promote interdisciplinary discussion with regard to the study of humankind,

2.4 Support members in their Anthropological endeavours,

2.5 Promote scientific and other subject related publications and to oversee the publication of a journal,

2.6 Organise regular conferences, seminars, symposia, and other scientific discussions – both online and face-to-face,

2.7 Assign activities or projects to members or study groups comprising members,

2.8 Promote links with other associations, locally and internationally, which are dedicated to, or are cognate with, Anthropology as a field of study.



3.1 All persons who subscribe to the objectives of the Association and who comply with the requirements for membership, may apply for membership,

3.2 There are four categories of members:

3.2.1 Full members are persons who have paid their membership dues and - Hold an Honours or higher degree in Anthropology, or equivalent qualification or achievement as determined by the Council; or Hold a lecturing or research position in Anthropology or a cognate at an Institution of Higher Learning, and/ or are engaged in advanced Anthropological research under the auspices of such an institution or a similar institution as determined by Council; or Have completed a final year degree course of equivalent qualification in Anthropology and who, in terms of their career, are engaged in a field of work that involves the application of Anthropological perspectives.

3.2.2 Honorary members are persons who are appointed by Council on the grounds of having distinguished themselves in the field of Anthropology, or related fields, and/ or promoted the objectives of the Association in a special way,

3.2.3 Associate members are persons interested in Anthropology and who have paid the appropriate membership dues,

3.2.4 Student members are persons registered for an undergraduate or postgraduate course in Anthropology at an Institute of Higher Learning who do not meet the requirements for full membership as per Paragraph 3.2.1 and have paid the appropriate membership dues.

3.3. A person is considered for full, associate, or student membership once a completed membership form – submitted for approval to Council – has been approved by Council or a membership subcommittee appointed by Council for the purpose,

3.4 A person is considered for Honorary membership once –

3.4.1 Their name is submitted in writing, together with the necessary evidence and justification, to Council; and

3.4.2 This nomination is presented to a General Meeting of the Association, as per Clause 5, for approval by a majority of the voting members present at that meeting.

3.5 All full and Honorary members have voting rights,

3.6 Associate and student members may attend all meetings of the Association that are not limited to full and honorary members and may take part in discussions but do NOT have voting rights other than, for student members, to elect a student member of Council,

3.7 All members:

3.7.1 May attend meetings of the Association and take part in discussions,

3.7.2 May attend conferences and discussion forums organised by the Association and present papers and other contributions,

3.7.3 May receive publications of the Association.

3.8 Membership is terminated:

3.8.1 When a letter of resignation is received by the Secretary of the Association,

3.8.2 When a member passes away,

3.8.3 When membership dues for more than one calendar year are outstanding,

3.8.4 By a two thirds majority decision of a quorate meeting of Council – Termination of membership in terms of Paragraph 3.8.4 shall be in cases where a member: Brings the name of the Association and/ or Anthropology into disrepute, Has behaved in a manner that is demonstrably and/ or malevolently in breach of ASnA’s Ethical Guidelines and Principles of Conduct, Has acted in a manner that maliciously disrupts the activities of the Association or the work of its members or other anthropologists. Any appeal against termination of membership in terms of Paragraph 3.8.4 shall, within 28 days of having been submitted to the Secretary or President, be considered by a General Meeting (including an Extraordinary General Meeting) which shall decide by two-thirds majority.

3.9 Membership dues for each category of membership, except honorary members who are exempted –

3.9.1 Are determined by Council and may be increased from time to time, on condition that, Provision is made to differentiate between the fees for full members who are in full-time permanent employment and those who are unwaged, retired and/ or in postdoctoral positions; and The fees for Associate and student members are lower than that of ordinary full members.

3.9.2 Are payable annually by 31 March.



4.1 Composition

4.1.1 The Association is managed by a Council, which is elected biennially at a General Meeting of its members,

4.1.2 Council comprises – The following who are elected by full members: A President, a Vice-President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and two additional members; and A Student Council member who is elected by and from amongst student members; and The Editor of the Anthropology Southern Africa Journal, who is appointed by Council on the recommendation of the Journal’s Editorial Board; and Up to two members co-opted by the elected Council to fill particular roles,

4.1.3 An electronic/ digital call for nominations for the election of Council members shall be sent to all members eligible to vote three weeks prior to the date set for the election of those members, with a closing date for receipt of such nominations being the day of the General Meeting during which an election occurs; and In instances where there are more nominees than there are vacant Council offices, an election shall be held during a General Meeting of the Association which normally occurs during an annual ASnA Conference, A quorum of a quarter of the full and honorary members plus one member is required for such an election (see Paragraph 5.3). Where such a quorum is not reached, an electronic/ digital ballot, with a voting window of seven days, will be circulated to all full members within a week of the adjournment of the elective General Meeting. The outcome of that ballot (which will include votes cast during the General Meeting) will be accepted, irrespective of whether a quorum is reached, The same principle as in Paragraph will apply to the election of the Student Council member for which the quorum is a quarter of the student members plus one, A newly elected Council takes office immediately after the end of the General Meeting at which it is elected or, where an electronic ballot is required, immediately after the results of that ballot are published.

4.1.4 Vacancies on Council during the term of office and with less than six months to run, may be filled by Council for the unexpired term. In cases where the unexpired term is six months or more, an electronic election shall be held and follow the procedures for regular biennial elections. Vacancies will be filled either from among full and honorary members, or, in the case of the Student Council member, from among student members,

4.1.5 At the end of their term Council members may be re-elected, on condition that members may not serve in the same position for more than two successive terms. For reasons of continuity, at least two members should agree to stand for re-election at the end of their term, if necessary for a different position that they have occupied in the previous Council,

4.1.6 Membership of Council is terminated when: A Council member resigns from Council or as member of the Association, A Council member’s membership dues are outstanding for more than one year, A Council member’s membership of the Association is terminated.

4.1.7 Council shall meet, either electronically or face-to-face as often as required but no less than four times a year. Half the members of Council plus one member constitute a quorum,

4.1.8 A special meeting of Council must be called when at least three Council members request it, or when at least one tenth of the full and Honorary members of the Association request it,

4.1.9 Minutes of every Council meeting shall be recorded by the Secretary (or other Council member delegated to do so) and shall be retained, after approval at each immediately subsequent meeting, for a period of at least ten years.

4.2 Powers:

4.2.1 As the governing body of the Association, Council shall be responsible for formulation of policy, procedures, and the general direction of the affairs of the Association,

4.2.2 Council may establish an Executive Committee (of no fewer than three persons) with the power to act on behalf of Council. In instances where the Executive Committee does act, ratification of those actions must be obtained from the whole Council at the Council meeting immediately thereafter; such ratification must be minuted – A necessary function of the Executive Committee is to oversee the financial affairs of the Association’s journal, including its relationship with any publisher/ distributor of the Journal (as per Paragraph 6.1).

4.2.3 Council may establish such committees as may be necessary for the conduct of the Association’s affairs,

4.2.4 Council must facilitate the successful organisation of the activities of the Association,

4.2.5 Council must execute all decisions of the General Meeting,

4.2.6 Council must report annually to the General Meeting about the progress and activities of the Association,

4.2.7 Council can convene an Extraordinary General Meeting when it is deemed necessary by Council – Council must convene an Extraordinary General Meeting, if necessary, an electronic/ digital meeting, when at least one tenth of the full and Honorary members of the Association request such. In such instances, Council must advertise the Extraordinary General Meeting no more than a week after having received the request, and for a date no later than 21 days after so advertising the Extraordinary General Meeting.

4.2.8 Council may approach any member to assist in any activity referred to in Paragraph 2.7, or which Council considers necessary or appropriate to promote the objectives of the Association,

4.2.9 Council must control the assets and must manage the financial affairs of the Association on behalf of the General Meeting and must report annually to the General Meeting after the financial statements have been audited by two full members (as appointed by the General Meeting),

4.2.10 Council may solicit, receive, invest where appropriate, and administer funds in respect of the activities of the Association – All funds that are received and held by the Association shall be held in one or more accounts with a registered bank in the Republic of South Africa; and all transactions shall be made through such an account, All funds held by the Association shall be used exclusively to meet the Association’s objectives as spelled out in Clause 2, The Association’s financial year shall be from 1 April to 31 March of each year, and annual financial reports will cover than period, Neither Council members nor any other member of the Association has any rights by virtue of their being office-bearers or their membership, in the property or other assets of the Association, Neither Council members nor any other member of the Association is liable for any of the obligations and liabilities of the Association by virtue of their status as office-bearers or members of the Association, Neither Council members nor any other member of the Association is personally liable for any loss suffered by any person as a result of an act or omission which occurs in good faith while that person is performing functions for or on behalf of the Association, While Council may authorise the expenditure of funds in respect of the Association’s activities, such expenditure may not involve distribution of the Association’s income or assets to Council members or to the Association’s members. Exceptions include the use of Association funds for bursaries or scholarships enabling student members to attend and participate in the Association’s activities and for prizes awarded to members in terms of criteria established by Council and ratified by the General Meeting.

4.2.11 Council may make decisions to co-operate or affiliate with other scientific societies and associations that are dedicated to Anthropology or to cognate fields. When appropriate, Council shall elect representatives from this Association to other such scientific societies or associations. It may also recognise, for purposes of planning programmes or other activities within the objectives of the Association, other scientific societies or associations as co-operating or affiliated organisations.



5.1 A General Meeting, chaired by the President, or in their absence the Vice-President, is held annually at which:

5.1.1 In years when elections are required (see Paragraph 4.1.4), members of Council are elected as required,

5.1.2 All reports, including an annual President’s report about the activities of Council and Association for the previous year and a financial report are considered,

5.1.3 Any other matter as decided by the meeting or by Council is discussed,

5.1.4 Minutes of every General Meeting, including Extraordinary General Meetings, shall be recorded by the Secretary (or other Council member delegated to do so) and shall be retained and presented for approval at each immediately subsequent General Meeting. Minutes shall be retained for a period of at least ten years. Such minutes shall include the annual President’s report and the annual financial report. They will also document the processes followed for elections of Council members.

5.2 Decisions of a General Meeting are taken by majority vote unless the constitution determines otherwise. In addition to an ordinary vote, the President has a casting vote,

5.3 A quarter of the full and Honorary members plus one member constitute a quorum. If the members present at any General Meeting do not constitute a quorum, that meeting shall be adjourned and an electronic/ digital General Meeting shall be called within 7 calendar days of the adjournment. That electronic/ digital General Meeting shall occur no later than 21 calendar days after the announcement of an electronic/ digital General Meeting. Decisions taken by such an electronic/ digital General Meeting (i.e. one that is called after the adjournment of an inquorate General Meeting) will be accepted, irrespective of whether the meeting is quorate,

5.4 The Secretary notifies all full and Honorary members of any General or Extraordinary General Meeting and makes available to them the agenda of the meeting at least 21 calendar days prior to the meeting,

5.5 The President may, should they deem it necessary or on a written request of at least ten full and/ or Honorary members, call for an Extraordinary General Meeting. That Extraordinary General Meeting will deal only with matters listed on the agenda,

5.6 The Secretary, or someone appointed as convenor by Council, makes arrangements for any meetings of working groups, established by decision of the General Meeting or Council.



6.1 The Association has established, and the Council is responsible for ensuring the continuing viability and financial sustainability of the Association’s peer-reviewed Journal. Council’s responsibilities in this respect include:

6.1.1 Formulating and agreeing to the terms of any contract, including renewals of any such contract, between the Association and a publisher which publishes and distributes the Journal,

6.1.2 Controlling the assets and managing the financial affairs of the Journal. That includes reporting annually to the General Meeting once the Journal’s financial statements have been audited by two full members of the Association who are appointed by the General Meeting,

6.1.3 Renumerating the Journal’s Editorial Assistant,

6.1.4 Soliciting, receiving, and administering funds in respect of the activities of the Journal.

6.2 The name of the Journal is determined by Council,

6.3 The Journal’s editorial policy, as determined by the editors and the Editorial Board, is subject to Council’s and, ultimately, to the General Meeting’s ratification,

6.4 The journal’s own Constitution is determined by the editors and the Editorial Board, but subject to ratification by Council and, ultimately, by the General Meeting,

6.5 Council, after consultation and in collaboration with the Journal’s Editorial Board and the incumbent editors:

6.5.1 Appoints one or more editors whenever incumbents’ terms are due to end,

6.5.2 Terminates the appointment of an editor when there is evidence of dereliction of duty,

6.5.3 Appoints the Journal’s Editorial Assistant and terminates such appointment if that may prove necessary.

6.6 Council, after consultation and in collaboration with the incumbent editors, appoints the Journal’s Editorial Board and elects Honorary Editorial Board members,

6.7 The incumbent editors report annually to Council and at the General Meeting about the course and state of the Journal,

6.8 All members receive the Journal at a rate determined from time to time by Council.



7.1 The Association shall at all times have an approved set of ethical guidelines and principles of conduct that is accessible to all members as well as to the general public at any time,

7.2 The Association’s ethical guidelines and principles of conduct must be scrutinised by a sub-committee appointed by a General Meeting, at least once every four years.



8.1 The Constitution may be amended by a two thirds majority decision of the full and Honorary members present at and/ or participating in a General Meeting or Extraordinary General Meeting, provided that the Secretary had notified all full and Honorary members of the intended amendments at least 21 calendar days prior to the meeting.



9.1 The Association can be dissolved by a two-thirds majority vote of the full and Honorary members present at or participating in a General Meeting or Extraordinary General Meeting during which all responsibilities of the Council and the Association must be clarified, provided that the President has no casting vote,

9.2 The Council in office at the time of dissolution must give effect to the decision to dissolve,

9.3 In the event of a dissolution, Council of the Association must dispose of the assets of the Association to any other association or institution of a scientific or educational nature within Southern Africa which, in the opinion of the Meeting deciding on the dissolution of the Association, has objectives similar to those of the Association or which operate in a manner which would further the objectives for which the Association was established.



10.1 The Association constitutes a legal persona which shall continue to exist for purposes of achieving its objectives as per Clause 2, notwithstanding changes in the composition of its membership or its office-bearers; and it has full powers to acquire rights in its own name, and to take all legal actions necessary to achieve those objectives,

10.2 The Association designates the President’s, or other chosen Council member’s, institutional address provided it is located within South Africa, as its place of domicilium ex citandi for purposes of any legal actions that may be instituted by or against the Association.